Year of Publication


Date of Thesis


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Exercise and Sport Sciences

Subject Categories

Athletic ability -- Testing; Imagery (Psychology) -- Testing; Field hockey


This investigation examined the differences between proficient and less proficient athletes on imaging ability. Female field hockey players (N = 72) from seven college and university level teams participating in an indoor field hockey tournament were administered a 78-item questionnaire upon mental imagery and situations in field hockey. The questionnaire consisted of the following four sections and respective concepts: (a) the Betts Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery (Betts QMI), which measured vividness of general imagery, (b) field hockey imagery, which measured vividness of field hockey imagery, (c) field hockey strategy imagery, which measured vividness and control of field hockey imagery, and (d) sport imagery awareness, which assessed athletes' awareness of their use of imagery in the field hockey situation. Proficiency was determined through the coach's assessment of individual athletes, based on the criteria of a rating scale.Descriptive statistics, including means and standard deviations, were calculated for skill and imagery components. The data indicated that the athletes as a group (a) were of average skill level, (b) reported high scores of vividness of imagery, both general and sport specific, (c.) reported vivid and controlled sport specific imagery, and (d.) were not aware of their use of imagery in the sport situation. The data were treated with a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to determine differences between imaging ability and athletic performance. The MANOVA revealed no significant differences in imaging ability between proficient and less proficient athletes, e(1, 1, 21.5) = .279, < .05. Multiple regression assessed the predictive effect of the imagery components on skill. The order of importance of the imagery components to skill was (a) field hockey imagery, (b) Betts QMI, (c) sport imagery awareness, and (d) field hockey strategy imagery. The imagery components accounted for 6.4% of the variance, however, this did not reach statistical significance. Results are consistent with those reported in research involving open skill sports as opposed to closed skill sports.



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