Colleen Sager

Year of Publication


Date of Thesis


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science


Exercise and Sport Sciences

Subject Categories

Sports -- Psychological aspects;


Being a competitive athlete requires the use of both physical and mental skills to enhance performance. One mental skill many athletes have found useful is mental imagery. Imagery is an experience involving the use of one or more senses to create, or recreate, a particular sporting skill or situation. There are many ways imagery improves performance. One way imagery can be effective at improving performance is by enhancing athlete’s self-efficacy. Bandura (1977) defined self-efficacy as the belief one has in being able to execute a specific task successfully in order to obtain a certain outcome. While the topics of imagery and self-efficacy have received considerable attention in the world of sport, research assessing cyclists’ use of imagery and how it relates to self-efficacy has yet to be completed. This relationship is especially important so that cyclists, coaches, and sport psychology consultants can better understand how imagery might enhance cyclists’ self-efficacy and overall performances. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between self-efficacy and the use of imagery bycyclists who completed at least four 65-mile bike rides during the 2009 cycling season. Twenty male and female cyclists, at least 18 years of age, participated in the current study. Participants were from various backgrounds with varying levels of cycling and competition experiences. A descriptive research design was followed, whereby the participants were asked to fill out a Demographic Form, The Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ), and a Cycling Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (CSEQ). The demographic form, the SIQ, and the CSEQ, were given to the participants via-email, or in person, along with instructions on how to complete each questionnaire. A one-sample ttest was used to determine if participants used imagery during a 65-mile bike ride by comparing their imagery subscale scores to a value of four on the SIQ 1-7 Likert scale. Results showed that cyclists do use imagery during a 65-mile bike ride and results from a one-way ANOVA indicated that motivational general-mastery (MG-M) imagery was used more than the four other types of imagery. Unfortunately, participants CSEQ scores were all very high (M = 90.47 SD = 9.09) creating a ceiling effect making it impossible to determine if a relationship existed between imagery and self-efficacy.



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