Figure Skating: Characteristics of triple and quadruple toe‐loops performed during the salt lake city 2002 winter olympics

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The purpose of this study was to compare triple (T) and quadruple (Q) toe‐loop figure skating jumps and quantify basic characteristics of these jumps to provide information to coaches that will assist them in teaching quadruple toe‐loops to elite figure skaters. High‐speed video was taken during men's practice and competition sessions at the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics; three‐dimensional analyses of selected triple and quadruple jumps were completed. The most significant difference between triple and quadruple toe‐loops was an increase in rotational velocity in the air. Additionally, increased vertical velocity at take‐off and subsequent time in the air were also observed. Three main conclusions were developed: 1) The timing of rotation of the hips and shoulders was different for quadruple toe‐loops compared to triples with the differences being observed before toe‐pick; 2) Increases in rotational velocity occurred primarily as a result of the skaters assuming different body positions from take‐off through landing which resulted in tighter rotating positions for longer durations of the jump; 3) Greater vertical velocity was gained during the propulsive phase due to the extension of the legs during the press off the ice. © 2004 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.

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Sports Biomechanics

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