Src family kinase inhibitors blunt PACAP-induced PAC1 receptor endocytosis, phosphorylation of ERK, and the increase in cardiac neuron excitability

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Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP, Adcyap1) activation of PAC1 receptors (Adcyap1r1) significantly increases excitability of guinea pig cardiac neurons. This modulation of excitability is mediated in part by plasma membrane G protein-dependent activation of adenylyl cyclase and downstream signaling cascades. However, additional mechanisms responsible for the enhanced excitability are activated following internalization of the PAC1 receptor and endosomal signaling. Src family kinases play critical roles mediating endocytosis of many trophic factor and G protein-coupled receptors. The present study investigated whether Src family kinases also support the PACAP-induced PAC1 receptor internalization, phosphorylation of ERK, and enhanced neuronal excitability. Using human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing a green fluorescent proteintagged PAC1 receptor, treatment with the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 (10 μM) markedly reduced the PACAP-induced PAC1 receptor internalization, and in parallel, both PP2 and Src inhibitor 1 (Src-1, 2 μM) reduced ERK activation determined by Western blot analysis. In contrast, Src family kinase inhibitors did not eliminate a PACAPinduced rise in global calcium generated by inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate- induced release of calcium from endoplasmic reticulum stores. From confocal analysis of phosphorylated ERK immunostaining, PP2 treatment significantly attenuated PACAP activation of ERK in neurons within cardiac ganglia whole mount preparations. Intracellular recordings demonstrated that PP2 also significantly blunted a PACAP-induced increase in cardiac neuron excitability. These studies demonstrate Src-related kinase activity in PAC1 receptor internalization, activation of MEK/ERK signaling, and regulation of neuronal excitability. The present results provide further support for the importance of PAC1 receptor endosomal signaling as a key mechanism regulating cellular function.

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American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology

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