Although commentators have employed geopolitical reasoning from the days of Herodotus and Thucydides, the term ‘geopolitics’ was coined in 1899 by the Swedish political scientist, Rudolf Kjellen, at a point when the rst fully inter-connected ‘closed’ global international system of states was emerging in which any signicant changes in the global balance of power would unavoidably trigger ‘zero-sum game’ struggles between rival great powers (Osterud, 1988; Black, 2009: 107-110).
Routledge Handbook of Russian Foreign Policy
Berryman, John, "Geopolitics" (2018). Faculty Articles Indexed in Scopus. 419.