Spine kinematics exhibited during the stop-jump by physically active individuals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and spinal fusion
Background Context Individuals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis post spinal fusion often return to exercise and sport. However, the movements that individuals with spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (SF-AIS) use to compensate for the loss of spinal flexibility during high-effort tasks are not known. Purpose The objective of this study was to compare the spinal kinematics of the trunk segments displayed during the stop-jump, a maximal effort task, between SF-AIS and healthy control groups. Study Design The study used a case-controlled design. Materials and Methods Ten SF-AIS (physically active, posterior-approach spinal fusion: 11.2±1.9 fused segments, postop time: 2±.6 years) and nine control individuals, pair matched for gender, age (17.4±1.3 years and 20.6±1.5 years, respectively), mass (63.50±12.2 kg and 66. 40±10.9 kg), height (1.69±.09 m and 1.72±.08 m), and level of physical activity, participated in the study. Individuals with spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and controls (CON) performed five acceptable trials of the stop-jump task. Spatial locations of 21 retroreflective trunk and pelvis markers were recorded via high-speed motion capture methodology. Mean differences and analysis of covariance (jump height=covariate, p<.05) were used to compare the groups’ relative angle (RelAng) and segmental angle (SegAng) of the three trunk segments (trunk segments=upper trunk [C7–T8], middle trunk [MT: T9–T12], lower trunk [LT: L1–L5]) for each rotation plane in the three phases of interest (flight, stance, and the vertical flight phases). Results No significant group differences for jump height and RelAng were detected in the three phases of stop-jump. Individuals with spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis displayed 3.2° greater transverse plane RelAng of LT compared with CON (p=.059) in the stance phase. Group differences for RelAng ranged from 0° to 15.3°. For SegAng in the stance phase, LT demonstrated greater SegAng in the sagittal and frontal planes (mean difference: 3.2°–6.2°), whereas SegAng for MT was 5.1° greater in the sagittal plane and had a tendency of 2° greater displacement in the frontal plane (p=.070). In the vertical flight phase, greater LT displacement in the frontal plane was observed for SF-AIS than CON. In the flight phase, LT had a tendency for greater SegAng for SF-AIS than for CON in the transverse plane (p=.089). Conclusions Overall, SF-AIS who participate in physical activity on a regular basis are able to demonstrate similar trunk kinematics during a high-intensity stop-jump task as their matched healthy peers. Fewer group differences for relative angular displacements of the spine were observed than anticipated. This finding suggests that the fused MT appeared to be moving synchronously with the LT, thereby suggesting a compensatory adaptation of SF-AIS to achieve sufficient trunk movements during this high-effort movement.
Kakar, Rumit Singh; Li, Yumeng; Brown, Cathleen N.; Kim, Seock Ho; Oswald, Timothy S.; and Simpson, Kathy J., "Spine kinematics exhibited during the stop-jump by physically active individuals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and spinal fusion" (2018). Faculty Articles Indexed in Scopus. 429.