Recruitment of endosomal signaling mediates the forskolin modulation of guinea pig cardiac neuron excitability

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Forskolin, a selective activator of adenylyl cyclase (AC), commonly is used to establish actions of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are initiated primarily through activation of AC/cAMP signaling pathways. In the present study, forskolin was used to evaluate the potential role of AC/cAMP, which is a major signaling mechanism for the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-selective PAC1 receptor, in the regulation of guinea pig cardiac neuronal excitability. Forskolin (5–10 μM) increases excitability in ~60% of the cardiac neurons. The forskolin-mediated increase in excitability was considered related to cAMP regulation of a cyclic nucleotide gated channel or via protein kinase A (PKA)/ERK signaling, mechanisms that have been linked to PAC1 receptor activation. However, unlike PACAP mechanisms, forskolin enhancement of excitability was not significantly reduced by treatment with cesium to block currents through hyperpolarization-activated nonselective cation channels (I ) or by treatment with PD98059 to block MEK/ERK signaling. In contrast, treatment with the clathrin inhibitor Pitstop2 or the dynamin inhibitor dynasore eliminated the forskolin-induced increase in excitability; treatments with the inactive Pitstop analog or PP2 treatment to inhibit Src-mediated endocytosis mechanisms were ineffective. The PKA inhibitor KT5702 significantly suppressed the forskolin-induced change in excitability; further, KT5702 and Pitstop2 reduced the forskolin-stimulated MEK/ERK activation in cardiac neurons. Collectively, the present results suggest that forskolin activation of AC/cAMP/PKA signaling leads to the recruitment of clathrin/dynamin-dependent endosomal transduction cascades, including MEK/ERK signaling, and that endosomal signaling is the critical mechanism underlying the forskolin-induced increase in cardiac neuron excitability. h

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American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology

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