The composition of M-type asteroids II: Synthesis of spectroscopic and radar observations

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This work updates and expands on results of our long-term radar-driven observational campaign of main-belt asteroids (MBAs) focused on Bus-DeMeo Xc- and Xk-type objects (Tholen X and M class asteroids) using the Arecibo radar and NASA Infrared Telescope Facilities (Ockert-Bell, M.E., Clark, B.E., Shepard, M.K., Rivkin, A.S., Binzel, R.P., Thomas, C.A., DeMeo, F.E., Bus, S.J., Shah, S. [2008]. Icarus 195, 206-219; Ockert-Bell, M.E., Clark, B.E., Shepard, M.K., Issacs, R.A., Cloutis, E.A., Fornasier, S., Bus, S.J. [2010]. Icarus 210, 674-692; Shepard, M.K. et al. [2008a]. Icarus 193, 20-38; Shepard, M.K. et al. [2008b]. Icarus 195, 184-205; Shepard, M.K. et al. [2010]. Icarus 215, 547-551). Eighteen of our targets were near-simultaneously observed with radar and those observations are described in Shepard et al. (Shepard, M.K. et al. [2010]. Icarus 215, 547-551). We combine our near-infrared data with available visible wavelength data for a more complete compositional analysis of our targets. Compositional evidence is derived from our target asteroid spectra using two different methods, a χ search for spectral matches in the RELAB database and parametric comparisons with meteorites. We present four new methods of parametric comparison, including discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis identifies meteorite type with 85% accuracy. This paper synthesizes the results of these two analog search algorithms and reconciles those results with analogs suggested from radar data (Shepard, M.K. et al. [2010]. Icarus 215, 547-551). We have observed 29 asteroids, 18 in conjunction with radar observations. For eighteen out of twenty-nine objects observed (62%) our compositional predictions are consistent over two or more methods applied. We find that for our Xc and Xk targets the best fit is an iron meteorite for 34% of the samples. Enstatite chondrites were best fits for 6 of our targets (21%). Stony-iron meteorites were best fits for 2 of our targets (7%). A discriminant analysis suggests that asteroids with no absorption band can be compared to iron meteorites and asteroids with both a 0.9 and 1.9μm absorption band can be compared to stony-iron meteorites. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. 2

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